Engine Speed input Circuit Malfunction
The PCM has received an engine speed signal from the engine (turbine) speed input sensor that is either irrational, erratic, or in some way incorrect. Without a usable input speed signal the transmission cannot provide a proper shift strategy.
Code Set Parameters
While code setting parameters vary between manufacturers, most PCMs are programmed to expect engine speed to increase gradually (and not to exceed output speed) until a shift point is reached. If input speed fails to increase gradually, or if the PCM receives an erratic signal (or no signal at all), a code will be stored and a malfunction indicator may be illuminated. Some models may require multiple failure cycles in order for a malfunction indicator lamp to be illuminated.
The most noticeable symptoms may include a harsh shift, failure to shift, a decrease in fuel economy, the speedometer may fluctuate wildly or fail to operate, the engine may stall when coming to a stop, engine misfire, sag, stall, or hesitation, a stored code, and possibly an illuminated service engine soon lamp. An output speed sensor code often accompanies this code, as well. In some rare cases there may be no adverse symptoms noticed at all.
The most common causes of this code being stored are due to a defective engine input speed sensor or transmission output speed sensor. Other common causes include shorted, open, corroded, or damaged wiring circuits or connectors, faulty shift solenoid/s, defective engine drivability sensors (especially the engine temperature sensor), dirty or contaminated transmission fluid that restricts flow, defective valve body, a faulty PCM. PCM failure is rare.
Mistakes range from attempting to diagnose this type of code as a vehicle speed malfunction, an internal transmission problem, an engine misfire, fuel delivery problem, or a driveline malfunction. Technicians report that unnecessary vehicle speed sensor replacement is the result of one particularly common misdiagnosis.
- A scanner (or code reader), a digital volt/ohmmeter, and possibly an oscilloscope will be helpful in diagnosing this code.
Most OBD-II equipped automobiles utilize an engine input speed sensor to provide the PCM with an input speed signal
- On most models the sensor either threads directly into the transmission housing or is mounted to the exterior of the transmission housing using bolts
- The sensor is of the electro magnetic design and uses a reluctor ring (or a specialized set of splines) on the input shaft as reference points
- As the input shaft is turned (by the engine) the electro magnetic input/turbine speed sensor uses the spaces between the splines to provide voltage signal interruptions in the circuit
- These interruptions are received by the PCM as square waveform patterns of varying degrees of voltage and translated into engine (turbine) input speed
- The PCM then compares input speed data with output speed data to determine shift patterns, as well as certain engine drivability functions.
The typical engine input speed sensor uses a three-wire connector but check the vehicle manufacturer’s wiring diagram to confirm the specific design of the vehicle in question
- The first wire is a reference voltage signal (usually 5-volts), the second wire will normally be a ground wire, and the third wire will be a signal wire
- As the reluctor ring passes by the electro magnetic sensor, the 5-volt reference signal is completed with the protruding metal surfaces
- The recessed surfaces of the reluctor provide voltage interruptions and these interruptions are input to the PCM via the signal wire
Begin your diagnosis with a visual inspection of system wiring, connectors, and components
- Repair or replace any open, shorted, damaged, or corroded items as required and retest the system to make sure that repairs were successful
- Pay particular attention to wiring and connectors that have been contaminated due to engine oil or transmission fluid leaks, burned on hot exhaust pipes, or damaged due to road debris.
If the system wiring, connectors, and components appear to be in normal working order, connect the scanner to the diagnostic connector and record all stored trouble codes and freeze frame data
- This information can be extremely helpful in diagnosing intermittent conditions that may have contributed to this code being stored
- After the codes are cleared, operate the vehicle to see if the code returns
- If the code fails to immediately return, you may have an intermittent condition
- Intermittent conditions can prove to be quite a challenge to diagnose and in extreme cases may have to be allowed to worsen before a correct diagnosis can be made
If the code immediately returns, check for reference voltage and ground signals at the input speed sensor
- If either the reference voltage or ground circuits are open, use the digital volt/ohmmeter to check for continuity (disconnect all related control modules from the circuit before checking circuit resistance or controller damage may occur) and resistance in both circuits
- Repair or replace system circuits/connectors as required and retest the system to ensure that repairs were successful.
Using the manufacturer’s wiring diagram for the engine input speed sensor, test all related circuits and the sensor for resistance and continuity and compare your findings with manufacturer’s specifications
- Repair or replace system circuitry, connectors, and/or components that fail to coincide with manufacturer’s specs
- Always retest the system to ensure a successful repair.
If all system circuits are intact, connect the oscilloscope and observe live input speed sensor data
- Watch for glitches or “soft spots” in the wave form pattern and repair or replace system circuitry, connectors, or components as required.
If all circuits coincide with manufacturer’s specifications, and the waveform pattern is within acceptable limits, suspect a defective PCM
- Remember that PCM failure is rare and replacement will require reprogramming